The Relocation Act (1956): P.L. 959 provided funding to establish "job training centers" for American Indians in various urban centers, and to finance the relocation of individual Indians and Indian families to these locales. It was coupled to a denial of funds for similar programs and economic development on the reservations themselves. Those who availed themselves of the "opportunity" for jobs, etc., represented by the federal relocation programs were usually required to sign agreements that they would not return to their respective reservations to live. The result, by 1980, was a diaspora of Native Americans, with more than half of the 1.6 million Indians in the U.S. having been scattered to cities across the country.